Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh <p>The Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, Faculty of Arts &amp; Social Sciences, University of Karachi, is an HEC recognized, multi-disciplinary Social Sciences journal, and is published biannually by the Faculty of Arts &amp; Social Sciences, University of Karachi in the month of June and December. The journal covers a wide array of topics from different learned scholars, ranging from international relations, psychology, political science and education to criminology. The studies are conducted on the broad spectrum of the topics ranging from socio cultural, economic and political changes, human behavior, globalization and financial crimes as well.&nbsp;All rights reserved.</p> en-US rfc@uok.edu.pk (Prof Dr Farah Iqbal) rfc@uok.edu.pk (Abdul Majid Modi) Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.2.0.3 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 UNDERSTANDING RESILIENCE AND AGGRESSION IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/1 <p><em>The ability to be resilient in the face of adversity requires the absence of unhealthy coping behaviors, one of which is aggression. Middle adulthood is the developmental stage of various midlife stressors. Limited data is available with regards to this age group especially in Pakistan. The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between resilience and aggression in middle adulthood. For this purpose, 200 participants (100 men; 100 women) with M</em><sub>age</sub><em> = </em>42.67 years<em> &amp; SD </em>= 6.04,<em> from different work places and residential areas of Karachi, Pakistan participated in the study. The Brief Resilience Scale was used to measure resilience whereas aggression was measured using the Short Form of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Pearson product-moment correlation and regression analysis, conducted using the SPSS, indicated the presence of a significant negative correlation between resilience and aggression. This study would help in understanding how resilience and aggression plays a role during middle adulthood. It would further be beneficial for mental health professionals to identify, devise, and implement better ways of enhancing resilience and helping people to deal with adversities in a healthy manner. </em></p> Ms Sabahat Naseem, Prof Dr Seema Munaf Copyright (c) 2019 Ms Sabahat Naseem, Prof Dr Seema Munaf https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/1 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 FOSTERING STANDARDIZATION AND QUALITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION- A STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVE https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/4 <p><em>Universities are specialized units aimed to deliver quality education and shaping future leadership to provide competent professionals to the industry. The establishment of ORIC in universities and significant increase in academia-industry linkage activities is strategic move towards achievement of the mentioned objectives. Bridging up the gap between academia and industry by adopting such strategies defines the successful role of HEIs. In view of increasing number of universities and continuous outflow of graduates it seems imperative to analyze and capitalize their potential towards the growth of economy. However, the unemployment ratio and limited growth in SME (Small &amp; Medium sized Entities) sector reflect the insignificant absorption of graduates in corporate sector. The study aims to determine the factors that serve as barriers in achieving goals of HEIs by understanding the problems faced by university students in general and business graduates in particular on the basis of data gathered from 100 students from different universities present in Karachi. It shall also assists the policy makers in devising policy as per market demands, level of quality attained by universities, their involvement with corporate sector and in turn need of the industry to keep both parties at par in the fluctuating and contemporary era.</em></p> Ms Nida Masroor, Dr Muhammad Asim Copyright (c) 2019 Ms Nida Masroor, Dr Muhammad Asim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/4 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 TRANSFORMATION OF HISTORY IN THE GLASS PALACE AND BURNT SHADOWS: A POSTMODERNIST ANALYSIS https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/6 <p><em>South Asian English fiction, in recent decades, has significantly manifested its deepest concern for history and its relevance in the contemporary global scenario. The last couple of years have noticed the publication of many English novels by Indian and Pakistani authors that in fact belong to the very genre of postmodern historiographic metafiction.</em> In fact, p<em>ostmodern fiction writers usually deviate from the traditional representation of past events. The current study examines the way history writing is reconfigured in the selected postmodern novel. In these novels, the writers retell the traditional history through innovative narrative techniques and multiplicity of the views that de-centralize the conventional history. The present research attempts to explore Amitav Gosh’s <u>The Glass Palace</u> and Kamila Shamsie’s <u>Burnt Shadows</u> as historiographic metafiction, that is a sub-genre of postmodern fiction. The study focuses on the selected texts to explore how these novels transform the traditional history through the incorporation of magic realism, intertextuality and self-reflexivity. This research is qualitative and descriptive, while the textual analysis has been used as a research method. The theoretical concept of Linda Hutcheon is incorporated in this current study that ends with findings and recommendations for future research.</em></p> Ayesha Ashraf, Munawar Iqbal Ahmed Copyright (c) 2019 Ayesha Ashraf, Munawar Iqbal Ahmed https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/6 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 NEXUS BETWEEN GENDER INEQUALITY IN EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN PAKISTAN https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/5 <p><em>Pakistan’s women educational attainment has been the lowest in the entire South Asia; with women and girls continuing to suffer discrimination in the field of education. This study is designed to examine the linkage between gender disparity in education and Pakistan economic success, using annual secondary data to date range 1980 to 2019. Also the study checked the variables integration order by using Dickey-Fuller and Philip-Peron tests apart from utilizing the ARDL bound test technique for long-run co-integration relationship while the direction of causality were tested by using Granger causality. The analyses reflect that a strong adverse influence on growth was the result to be yielded from gender educational disparity in Pakistan. This finding is based on the empirical interpretation such as women educational attainment at primary and secondary levels, government expenditures on education, total secondary education and male secondary education significantly contribute to growth. However, the associations of population growth, total labor force, male education at primary level and total primary education with growth being significantly negative. This study also found long run pair-wise causality from male and female secondary school attainment separately, male primary education, total primary and total secondary education to economic success.</em></p> Arshad Ali, Imtiaz Ahmad Copyright (c) 2019 Arshad Ali, Imtiaz Ahmad https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/5 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 UNIVERSAL HUMAN RIGHTS DECLARATION: RIGHT TO RETURN OF PALESTINIAN REFUGEES https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/7 <p><em>For over last 70 years, the concept of "return" attained primary focus for the national narrative of Palestinian struggle against devastating conditions, categorized as (i) eviction from ancestral homeland, (ii) diffusion in all aspects and (iii) reconstitution of national unity. However, the very idea create fears among Israelis regarding their authority of whole Zionist enterprise, as well as demographic stability of Arab-Jewish ventures, with regards to the return of large number of Palestinians to their own places or any other part in Palestine. Discrimination in opposition to Palestinians is no longer perpetrated fully by Israeli state, but common to its society, as well. Our article is an answer to the complicated question: Can refugees along with other displaced victims ever claim their right in entering Israel and Palestine, since this State includes Gaza and West Bank territories?&nbsp; Various articles have made an attempt to clarify the matter through some internal laws and have also interpreted the rights mentioned in ‘International Covenants on Civil and Political Rights’, particularly while clarifying the idea evolved from the typical term: 'his own country’. The article focuses on the viable first point, specifically on the claim as a right of the Diasporas return to the formerly called ‘Palestine’. Various resources are utilised for the purpose of the research. This includes books, scholarly researched articles and newspapers etc. The study is analytical in nature and based on qualitative research method. Most of the literature used for the article is Secondary. The conclusion drawn in precise manner is that the intentions are blended in repeated violations of human rights, along with ethnic and religious refining and various innumerable deficiencies, and try to become regularly involved in sensitive issues. This turned out to be disheartening for the people living there as no efforts are made for a truthful resolution.</em></p> Summer Sultana, Sabir Ijaz, Mubasshar Hassan Jafri Copyright (c) 2019 Summer Sultana, Sabir Ijaz, Mubasshar Hassan Jafri https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/7 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 FLOUTING OF GRICEANS MAXIMS IN COMEDY DRAMAS https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/8 <p><em>The only way to be successful now days in every field of life is the effective use of verbal expression. Language serves as a toolkit to inform, reveal, explore, expose, explain, manipulate, exaggerate, intensify, mitigate and what not. It has every hidden potential to serve its users. Significance of this toolkit of language can also be a bravura feature in gaining comic and/or tragic effects in media. The language of the media violates its few communicative principles which can be termed as Gricean cooperative principle, to serve the specific interests via playing upon the common use of language.&nbsp; The present study explores the intricacies involved in any communication to achieve comic effects. For this purpose, Gricean maxims have been investigated thoroughly with the help of Pakistani comedy show “Bulbulay” which is a famous TV series all over the country. The TV series is considered to be popular among the masses due to its different and unique language that is achieved by flouting the maxims in Gricean’s terminology. The study explains the inimitable ways of achieving comic effects in series and also suggests further work on other areas regarding the unusual use of language to achieve desired results.</em></p> Faiza Zeb Copyright (c) 2019 Faiza Zeb https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/8 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 POSITIVE DISINTEGRATION IN MYSTICAL EXPERIENCES: A PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF MURIEL MAUFROY’S RUMI’S DAUGHTER https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/10 <p><em>The relationship between psychology and mysticism has gained a great deal of currency over the years. Various psychological models have provided theoretical foundations allowing the researchers to grasp profound varieties and nuances in mystical experiences across cultures and religious traditions. This has, in fact, broadened the canvass for mystical studies. The current paper attempts to carry out a psychological analysis of mystical experience of a character (mystic) named Kimya in Muriel Maufroy’s novel “Rumi’s Daughter”. The study carries out an analysis of how the mystic’s experience of the Divine can be translated in terms of a psychological process of personality disintegration initiated by a conflict, deconstruction of preconceived notions and beliefs and ultimately leading towards secondary integration of personality. Kazimierz Dabrowski’s theory of positive disintegration is employed as a framework to analyse her spiritual encounter. Through a minute textual analysis of the novel, the research reveals certain parallels between the process of personality development and mystical experience. It confirms the contention that the culmination of mystical union underlies psychological wellbeing and serenity on the part of mystic. The study also shows that mystics are those rare individuals who are capable of reaching the final level of personality development characterised by self-autonomy and higher level of consciousness.</em></p> Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Hussain Copyright (c) 2019 Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Hussain https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/10 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 THE POLICY FAILURES OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENTS DURING EAST BENGAL CRISIS, 1947-71 https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/12 <p><em>The incident of 1971 is a historical concern. Both wings of Pakistan were united at the time of the creation of Pakistan but some policies that were adopted after the creation of Pakistan were inadequate to resolve the growing differences between the both wings. Writers are divided regarding the causes of the Fall of Dhaka. Indian involvement has been highlighted frequently and it is also said that East Bengal was on the distance of 1000 km from West Pakistan. Apart from these causes, this study will highlight a new perspective regarding the separation of East Bengal. From 1947 to 1971 the central governments of Pakistan took some measure regarding formulating policies and the policies were not sufficient to bring people of the both wings closer. Thus, the major policies and their consequences would be analysed in this paper. Further, this research would be a new one in a sense that there would be a general description of the policies from both wings</em>.</p> Kashif Iqbal Copyright (c) 2019 Kashif Iqbal https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/12 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A STRATEGIC VISION OF PAKISTAN’S INTERNAL SECURITY DYNAMICS https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/15 <p>Present era can be categorized due to its speed of changes. Pakistani society got affected by worst kind of terrorism and extremism in last fifteen years. The root causes of prevailing security environment in Pakistan are multifaceted, complex and are derived from structural, as well as micro-level conditions. Objective of this research is to highlight the gaps in security doctrine of Pakistan. Both qualitative and quantitative methodology in the format of Knowledge Attitude and Practice (KAP study) is selected. Primary question of this research was to find the gaps in national internal security policy of Pakistan. This primary question is further sub divided into ten sub questions. Implementation modalities and the impediments of National Internal Security Policy (NISP) 2014 are also discussed. This research finds out that national internal security policy 2014 was a vibrant document and right step in the domain of policy formulation but demanded non-pragmatic results from security operators. Majority of its drawbacks are removed in in its later version of 2018-23. Survey and questionnaire based analysis is also made part of this article along with recommendations as submitted by respondents.</p> Ayaz Ahmed Khan Copyright (c) 2019 Ayaz Ahmed Khan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/15 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 IMPACT OF EXCESSIVE USE OF FACEBOOK ON THE YOUTH OF KARACHI https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/16 <p><em>This research study has done to identify and investigate the major factors behind the excessive usage of Facebook by the youth of Karachi and what kind of impacts they have to face on various aspects of their lives due to this much consumption of Facebook. In this research paper, the researcher has applied both types of methodology, Qualitative as well as Quantitative. The researcher has selected Karachi (The city of Pakistan) as the universe of the study. The data has collected in the manner of survey forms filled by students of different universities and colleges of Karachi; aged from 18 to 30 and the sample size is 50 in which half of the population includes males and half females and 10 interviews are also conducted from teachers and parents of Facebook users. This research study raises major points related to the extreme usage of Facebook which includes the mental and physical conditions of adolescents, children’s progress in their academic lives, impacts on relationships and disturbance in routine works. The data has collected in a fair way. The results revealed that Facebook repercussion only happens when an individual is using it in an excessive amount. The researcher suggests that using Facebook could be beneficial only if people learns to use it in manageable levels and if they are able to create a balance between the virtual world and real world.</em></p> Dr. Yasmeen Sultana, Sadaf Ghaffar, Samia Saman Copyright (c) 2019 Yasmeen Sultana, Sadaf Ghaffar, Samia Saman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/16 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 MENACE OF CHILD LABOR IN BALOCHISTAN: A CASE STUDY OF QUETTA DISTRICT BALOCHISTAN PROVINCE, PAKISTAN https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/17 <p><em>The present study was conducted in Quetta district Balochistan province so as to determine the perception of the respondents about causes and consequences of child labor in Balochistan province. The sample size was 100 family units selected by using the simple random sampling. Somehow (40%) of the respondents fall in the age categories of 41 to 50 years, followed by 30% of the family units who were in the age categories of 50 and above years. More than half 52% of the respondents were illiterates and the other (14%) of the respondents had primary level of education. The result is further expressed that the other 20% of the male respondents were of the view that the retail trade, cycling repairing and carpet business important child labor route respectively. While 20% of the female respondents revealed that they are cycling repairing and carpet business important child labor route respectively at Quetta district. Children are the assets of any nation without their contribution in the developmental process can be null and void, therefore it should be recommended that government must take stern action against the child labor at grass-root level to eliminate the child labor in the community or society.</em></p> Muhammad Anwar, Shahida Habib Alizai, Waris Ali Copyright (c) 2019 Muhammad Anwar, Shahida Habib Alizai, Waris Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/17 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 THE INFLUENCE OF WORKFORCE DIVERSITY ON PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEE IN PRIVATE BANKING SECTOR OF PAKISTAN https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/23 <p><em>This is an era of globalization, and to maximize the competitive advantage, the banking industry is acknowledging and recognizing Human Resource practices and contributing their best to employ the organizational resources in best productive manner so that they can excel and enjoy competitive edge. Number of factors are affecting on performance of the employee. This research paper is mainly intended to explore the influence of employee diversity on the performance of employee in Private Banking business of Pakistan. Specifically in this paper, the performance of the employee in a banking sector has been predicted by the influence of employee diversity with respect to their education, age, gender, and ethnicity. The data was collected from 203 private banking representatives (serving on different positions at UBL, HBL, and MCB) by a convenience sampling method. In order to identify the relationship, the data has been tested by SPSS Regression and correlation analysis methods. Research findings suggested that the organizations with specific reference to banking sector should plan, design and execute the policies,, practices and strategies that have a wide range canvas inclusive every individual employee and workforce diversities.</em></p> Sobia Iqbal, Dr. Khalid Mehmood Iraqi, Tariq Rafi Copyright (c) 2019 Sobia Iqbal, Khalid Mehmood Iraqi, Tariq Rafi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/23 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 GENESIS OF COALITION POLITICS IN INDIA: A REVIEW OF EARLY TO PRESENT https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/24 <p><em>In the election of 17th Lok Sabha&nbsp; held in mid-2019, the Indian political parties&nbsp; tried hard to be a tie-up with each other against the present Modi-led NDA dispensation. In independent India, first, such attempt was made early in 1974 and started a new process of consolidation of opposition forces by the merger. In line, the Bharatiya Lok Dal (BLD) was formed by the merger of seven political parties and in this process, the constituent units lost their identity in the BLD. At the time although Congress (O) and the Jana Sangh were ready to cooperate but refused to lose their existence. Their experiences of emergency proved a blessing for them and they came together and formed an alliance called Janata Party, to challenge the Congress leadership of the time. Likewise, as of today in 2018-19 the Bharatiya Janata Party is the country’s largest political party in terms of representation in the national parliament and state assemblies and all political parties of present-day India with Indian National Congress as forerunner with the help of regional party try a futile attempt first to challenge and then to defeat the BJP in various elections. Although with a great difference in the situation the motto of opposition parties has been one and only to give weighty protest to turn the events in their favour. This ups and downs of Indian politics may prove a path-breaking for other developing countries where political parties are struggling hard to gain power but did not succeed on account of causes best known to them.</em></p> Rajkumar Singh, Chandra Prakash Singh Copyright (c) 2019 Rajkumar Singh, Chandra Prakash Singh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/24 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000