Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities <p><em>The Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, Faculty of Arts &amp; Social Sciences, University of Karachi, is an HEC recognized 'Y' category, double blind international peer review, multi-disciplinary Social Sciences journal. It is an open access journal and published biannually by the Faculty of Arts &amp; Social Sciences, University of Karachi in the month of June and December since 1960s. The journal covers a wide array of topics from different learned scholars, ranging from international relations, psychology, political science and education to criminology. The studies are conducted on the broad spectrum of the topics ranging from socio cultural, economic and political changes, human behavior, globalization and financial crimes as well. All rights reserved.</em></p> <p><a href=""><strong>Invitation for a Book Review.</strong></a></p> en-US (Prof Dr Farah Iqbal) (Abdul Majid Modi) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 OJS 60 A BIRD’S EYE VIEW OF SRI LANKAN GOVERNMENT BUDGET AND ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS <p><em>The government concern towards preservation of Economic, Social and cultural rights of citizens of a country can be clearly visible through the fiscal policy changes and the trends in public finance. This article intends to decompose and analyse the trends of government expenditure of Sri Lanka over the past years and to investigate whether the public expenditure has been allocated for productive sectors which truely facilitate public welfare and uplift the Ecoomic,Social and cultural rights of the citizens .The considered period for the data analysis is 2010 to 2018 and also a special emphasis has been given on 2019 budget as the latest. The trends of Public expenditure on education, health and main welfare programs and recent taxation policies have been taken into account as a proxy of the attention towards ESCR by the government. The study has illustrated a significant decline in the public expenditure on education, health and welfare with heavy burden generated by indirect taxes that can draw harmful impacts on economy’s future productive potential as well as on the obligation of protecting ESCR.</em></p> W. Emesha Piumini Perera Copyright (c) 2022 W. Emesha Piumini Perera Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 HOW VIABLE IS TRACK II AND III DIPLOMACY BETWEEN PAKISTAN AND INDIA? <p><em>This article examines viability of track II and III initiatives between India and Pakistan and their contribution in creating a cordial environment for track I diplomacy. The objective is the probe whether informal dialogues pave the way for states to communicate </em><em>formally or their presence is cosmetic in nature. Pakistan and India share a belligerent history of bilateral relationships. Despite four wars, diplomacy has somehow remained at work between the two. Although the two countries have been engaged in official and </em><em>backdoor dialogues periodically, however, this diplomatic contact appeared fragile and felt prey of severity many times. Track II and Track III diplomacy initiatives were launched and sought as means to reach the end of cordiality in bilateral relationships. The methodology used in this article is qualitative with primary and secondary sources. Through analysis of semi-governmental and people to people initiative, it is found that unofficial contact (track II and III) between the two states has not contributed toward paving the way for track I diplomacy. Such initiatives enjoy at length in good times more, rather than converting hostility into harmony in tense times. From Neemrana Dialogue to Ashoka Theater, track II and track III were unable to substitute track I.</em></p> Muhammad Qaseem Saeed Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Qaseem Saeed Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 A STUDY TO ASSESS PATIENT SATISFACTION IN EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT OF A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN KARACHI <p>The Emergency Department (ED) is a crucial medical treatment unit of hospital specializing in emergency medicine. EDs are responsible for providing immediate healthcare facilities to patients arriving without prior appointment. Thus, evaluating patient satisfaction is of immense importance for efficient service delivery. Very few studies are found in Pakistan, related to patients’ satisfaction and utilization of ED services both from demand and supply perspective of ED-Services Supply Chains (SSCs). Data was collected to assess 200 patient’s satisfaction towards quality of healthcare services of ED of Sindh Government Qatar Hospital, Orangi town-a tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Structured questionnaire was developed to interview patients and their attendants. Results of SPSS analysis revealed that 55% of patients were transferred to ED within 5 minutes, which shows efficient patient queues and flow management. 64.5% patient’s average LOS was between 40-60 minutes. 71% get the availability of basic facilities in ED. Majority of patients i.e. 96.5% and 90.5%, showed satisfaction with the time spent and treatment given by the doctor. Majority of the patients (96%) are satisfied with the services and performance of ED of a tertiary care hospital and 76% patients showed willingness to recommend ED of Government Qatar Hospital, Karachi to others.</p> Dr Shamaila Burney, Dr S. M. Aqil Burney Copyright (c) 2022 Shamaila Burney, S. M. Aqil Burney Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 SOCIAL CONNECTEDNESS OF THE OLDER ADULTS IN NON-URBAN SETTINGS: AN EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE <p><em>The study was conducted to unveil social connectedness of the older adults in non-urban </em><em>societies in Ghana, and the ecological and social inclusion theories underpinned the </em><em>study. The descriptive cross-sectional survey was undertaken based on the positivist </em><em>school of thought. Older adults who were 60 years or more, participated in the study. </em><em>Older Adults’ Social Connectedness Questionnaire (OASCQ) was designed to gather data </em><em>to answer the research questions and test the hypothesis. Frequency counts and </em><em>percentages, mean and standard deviation and independent samples t-test were the </em><em>analytical tools employed for the data analysis. The study unveiled, inter alia, that the </em><em>older adults tend to enjoy moderate level of social connectedness and the major groups </em><em>of people they frequently socially interact with are relatives, religious group members, </em><em>neighbours and friends. The study also unveiled that religious activities, phone calls, </em><em>cultural and social activities are the principal conduits for the older adults’ social </em><br /><em>interaction with significant others. Finally, the study establ ished a difference in the level </em><em>of social connectedness of the male and female older adults. It is reckoned that the older </em><em>adults in the rural settings need more and intensive social interactions to serve as impetus </em><em>for longevity.</em></p> Alfred Kuranchie Copyright (c) 2022 Alfred Kuranchie Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 UNFOLDING THE POLITICAL PARANOID: A DISCOURSE-BASED INQUIRY INTO PAKISTANI POLITICAL NARRATIVES <p><em>This paper aims at unfolding political conspiracies that help to manipulate political </em><em>reality in Pakistan. It significantly builds on the empirical data to show how language </em><em>and social semeiotics are used to coin catchy slogans to serve the politicians. Political </em><em>narratives remained a field of utmost interest to the discourse analysts since they offer a </em><em>rich data for a significant use of persuasively manipulative language, and they signify one </em><em>of the most implicit ways in which socio-political dogmas are disseminated so they are to </em><em>be carefully crafted to help model linguistic choices. Based on Discourse Historical </em><em>Approach (DHA) the present study highlights that the identifiable linguistic patterns </em><em>perform a greater role in shaping political reality, and those are influenced by the sociopolitical and historical perspectives of the society concerned. The data comprises slogans </em><em>from different registered political parties in Pakistan such as Pakistan People’s Party </em><em>(PPP), Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz (PMLN) and Pakistan Tehreke’ Insaf (PTI). The </em><em>study has found that the political parties in Pakistan use to craft new slogans to </em><em>manipulate reality to legitimise political environment in their favour and in doing so, they </em><em>use different semiotic resources including entities, socio-cultural circumstances and </em><em>verbal exchanges.</em></p> Tazanfal Tehseem, Naima Tassadiq, Zahra Bokhari Copyright (c) 2022 Tazanfal Tehseem, Naima Tassadiq, Zahra Bokhari Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 THE IMPACT OF ONLINE EDUCATION ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN THE BANADIR REGION <p><em>This study was intended to investigate the impact of online education on academic </em><em>performance among university students in Mogadishu Somalia. This study conducted a </em><em>descriptive research design with a quantitative approach to accomplish research </em><em>objectives. The study conducted primary data and used a questionnaire as a method of </em><em>collection. The target population of this study is based on the students among universities </em><em>in Banadir region. Students with a sample size of 130 respondents. The data was taken </em><em>from respondents through a questionnaire and the data were analyzed by SPSS version </em><em>20 and excel 2010. The specific objectives for the study were to determine the effect of the </em><em>e-learning system on academic performance, to investigate the effect of class atten dance </em><em>on academic performance, and satisfaction students' online system on academic </em><em>performance. Research of this study recommended that the organizations that provide </em><em>internet service make it easier for the student to access cheap internet and high -speed </em><em>internet.</em></p> Abubakar Hassan Mohamed Copyright (c) 2022 Abubakar Hassan Mohamed Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 AN EXPLORATION INTO THE WOODEN FURNITURE INDUSTRY THROUGH THE THEORETICAL LENS OF PORTER’S CLUSTER- A CASE STUDY OF KHAIRPUR MIRS <p><em>Furniture industry of Pakistan is considered as one of the high potential yet neglected </em><em>clusters. This industry is famous for its elaborate wooden carvings on the blocks of </em><em>Sheeshum and Rosemary. The leading furniture making areas of Pakistan are Chiniot, </em><em>Gujrat, Peshawar, Lahore and Karachi. However, Pakistan’s share in the international </em><em>wooden furniture market is insignificant, despite the fact that the country has a history of </em><em>craftsmanship and innovation in the field of wooden furniture. Especially Sindh region </em><em>which specializes in wood furniture making have not been explored for its potential in </em><em>increasing the furniture export. Further, there is a dearth of literature pertaining to their </em><em>geographical clustering as well as the causes of the underdevelopment of interior Sindh’s </em><em>wooden furniture industry. In response to this gap, this case study research a) conducts </em><em>geographical mapping of Khairpur Mirs wooden furniture industry through GIS, and b) </em><em>constructs a SWOT Matrix in light of Porter’s Cluster Theory on the basis of thematic </em><em>analysis. The findings highlight that the location of the business units is at Station Road </em><br /><em>from Khaki Shah pull to Nimm More (approximately 1 km area) with around 150 to 200 </em><em>furniture houses/ manufacturers. This research identifies the causes of underdevelopment of wooden furniture cluster in Khairpur on the basis of which participant </em><em>driven solutions are proposed. Finally, this research presents policy recommendations to </em><em>improve this small scale industry’s potential for socio economic growth.</em></p> Mahvish Khaskhely, Iffat Batool Naqvi, Manzoor Isran Copyright (c) 2022 Mahvish Khaskhely, Iffat Batool Naqvi, Manzoor Isran Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500